In preparation for managing transportation in catastrophic emergencies, identify agencies and their decision makers to interact with, and establish effective coordination with them to execute response.
Experience nationwide with responding to catastrophic events
New York City,New York,United States; Michigan,United States; Ohio,United States; Washington,District of Columbia,United States; Baltimore,Maryland,United States; Northridge,California,United States
- Conduct emergency transportation planning in concert with other local and regional transportation agencies as well as emergency response agencies. The importance of emergency planning in concert with other agencies was a constant theme throughout each event. Transportation agencies are interdependent, all working together to create an efficient transportation network. Coordination among agencies during emergencies can exist on two levels: that of the institution and that of the individual. The Baltimore rail tunnel fire also demonstrated the need to also ensure that response plans incorporate private industry. Through a memorandum of understanding between NJ Transit (New Jersey Transit) and private carriers, private fleets were available to assist in the movement of stranded commuters on the day of the blackout.
- Consider the practicality of sharing responsibilities among agencies and identifying decision makers in the event of a catastrophe. Agencies should consider the practicality of who the decision makers are, and how to share responsibilities within and across agencies. Education, training, and drills may help agency members make better decisions under unusual or stressful circumstances. The response to catastrophic events usually requires participation by federal, state, regional, and local jurisdictions and agencies, and representatives of these entities must coordinate their actions in order to respond effectively. Internally, transportation agencies need pre-established plans, which are well understood and have been rehearsed by staff. Externally, transportation agency personnel must know the functions and capabilities of other transportation and non-transportation agencies and understand the delineation of authority among the agencies. Furthermore, agency personnel must know how to provide the media and the public with accurate and timely information.
- Continually reassess the coordination plan among the local and regional transportation, public safety, and rescue agencies. Coordination among agencies should be an on-going activity and continually reassessed, particularly after a serious incident. Since September 11 and the blackout, some of the major transportation agencies in the New York City region have become linked by dedicated telephone landlines into each other’s offices. The lack of communication and coordination among transportation agencies was apparent after the terrorist attack on the Pentagon. Staffs at agencies operating in the region had not previously developed working arrangements. There was no communication to Virginia DOT from agencies in D.C., including the National Park Service and the District of Columbia DOT, regarding transportation facility closures that affected traffic flowing into Virginia, although requests were made. This put the Virginia DOT staff in a reactive mode. Interviewees also stressed the need to develop strong working relationships with non transportation agencies; most importantly, law enforcement and emergency response agencies.
- Establish clear delineation of authority for multi-agency emergency response. Multi-agency response requires preplanning that will establish a clear delineation of authority during emergencies. In Washington, the lack of formal coordination on September 11, 2001 led to a June 20, 2002 regional agreement among federal, state and local officials on how to coordinate response to transportation emergencies. The establishment of mutual aid agreements in advance of an emergency can make it possible for agencies and communities to share equipment as necessary and possible. This helps to reduce the need for costly expenditures and inefficient searches for equipment at the heights of crises. Following any kind of emergency, it is vital that the partner agencies that worked together to review and evaluate their performance and cooperation during the emergency in order to learn lessons that can be imparted in future responses.
Author: Allan J. DeBlasio et al
Published By: U.S. Department of Transportation
Source Date: May 2004
EDL Number: 14024URL: http://ntl.bts.gov/lib//jpodocs/repts_te//14024.htm
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